dpkg — это менеджер пакетов для систем, основанных на Debian. Он может устанавливать, удалять и собирать пакеты.

B отличие от других систем управления пакетами, dpkg не может автоматически скачивать и устанавливать пакеты или их зависимости.

dpkg --help
Использование: dpkg [<параметр> ...] <команда>

Команды:
  -i|--install      <имя файла .deb> ... | -R|--recursive <каталог> ...
  --unpack          <имя файла .deb> ... | -R|--recursive <каталог> ...
  -A|--record-avail <имя файла .deb> ... | -R|--recursive <каталог> ...
  --configure       <имя пакета> ... | -a|--pending
  --triggers-only   <имя пакета> ... | -a|--pending
  -r|--remove |     <имя пакета> ... | -a|--pending
  -P|--purge        <имя пакета> ... | -a|--pending
  --get-selections [<шаблон> ...]     Вывести список в стандартный поток
                                      вывода список выбранных пакетов
  --set-selections                    Выбрать пакеты в соответствии со
                                      списком из стандартного потока ввода
  --clear-selections                  Отменить выбор всех пакетов
                                      первой необходимости
  --update-avail <файл Packages>      Заменить информацию о доступных
                                      пакетах содержимым файла
  --merge-avail <файл Packages>       Объединить информацию о доступных
                                      пакетах с содержимым файла
  --clear-avail                       Удалить информацию о доступных пакетах
  --forget-old-unavail                Удалить информацию о неустановленных
                                      недоступных пакетах
  -s|--status <имя пакета> ...        Вывести информацию о состоянии пакета
  -p|--print-avail <имя пакета> ...   Вывести информацию о доступной
                                      версии пакета
  -L|--listfiles <имя пакета> ...     Перечислить файлы, принадлежащие
                                      пакету(ам)
  -l|--list [<шаблон> ...]            Кратко перечислить пакеты
  -S|--search <шаблон> ...            Найти пакет(ы), которому(ым)
                                      принадлежит(ат) файл(ы)
  -C|--audit                          Проверить наличие сломанных пакетов
  --print-architecture                Вывести целевую архитектуру
  --compare-versions <a> <op> <b>     Сравнить номера версий, см. ниже
  --force-help                        Вывести справку по командам игнорирования
  -Dh|--debug=help                    Вывести справку по командам отладки

  -h|--help                           Вывести это сообщение
  --version                           Вывести номер версии

К архивам применяются команды: dpkg -b|--build|-c|--contents|-e|--control|
 -f|--field|-x|--extract|-X|--vextract|--fsys-tarfile (см. dpkg-deb --help).

For internal use: dpkg --assert-support-predepends | --predep-package |
  --assert-working-epoch | --assert-long-filenames | --assert-multi-conrep |
  --assert-multi-arch.

Параметры:
  --admindir=<каталог>             Использовать <каталог> вместо /var/lib/dpkg
  --root=<каталог>                 Установить в другой
                                   корневой каталог
  --instdir=<каталог>              Изменить корневой каталог для
                                   установки, не меняя административный
                                   каталог
  --path-exclude=<шабл>            Не устанавливать пути, которые совпадают с
                                   данным шаблоном оболочки.
  --path-include=<шабл>            Повторно включить шаблон после предыдущего
                                   исключения.
  -O|--selected-only               Пропустить не выбранные для
                                   установки/обновления пакеты
  -E|--skip-same-version           Пропустить пакеты, версия
                                   которых совпадает с установленной
  -G|--refuse-downgrade            Пропустить пакеты, версия
                                   которых младше установленной
  -B|--auto-deconfigure            Установить, даже если это может сделать
                                   другие пакеты неработоспособными
  --[no-]triggers                  Пропустить или принудительно выполнить
                                   последовательную обработку триггеров
  --no-debsig                      Не проверять подписи пакетов
  --no-act|--dry-run|--simulate
                                   Показать, что должно быть сделано, но
                                   не выполнять действия
  -D|--debug=<восьм. знач.>        Включить отладку,
                                   см. -Dhelp или --debug=help
  --status-fd <n>                  Вывести информацию об изменениях
                                   состояний пакетов в файл
                                   с дескриптором <n>
  --log=<имя файла>                Записывать изменения состояний
                                   и действия в <имя файла>
  --ignore-depends=<пакет>,...
                                   Игнорировать зависимости от <пакета>
  --force-...                      Игнорировать проблемы, см. --force-help
  --no-force-...|--refuse-...
                                   Прекратить работу при
                                   обнаружении проблем
  --abort-after <n>                Прекратить работу после
                                   обнаружения <n> количества ошибок

Операторы сравнения, возможные в --compare-versions:
  lt le eq ne ge gt       (пустое значение версии считать самой ранней);
  lt-nl le-nl ge-nl gt-nl (пустое значение версии считать самой поздней);
  < << <= = >= >> >       (для совместимости с синтаксисом файла control).

Программы «dselect» или «aptitude» предоставляют дружественный интерфейс
управления пакетами.

Кратко перечислить пакеты установленные в системе:

dpkg -l
Желаемый=неизвестно[u]/установить[i]/удалить[r]/вычистить[p]/зафиксировать[h]
| Состояние=не[n]/установлен[i]/настроен[c]/распакован[U]/частично настроен[F]/
            частично установлен[H]/trig-aWait/Trig-pend
|/ Ошибка?=(нет)/требуется переустановка[R] (верхний регистр
в полях состояния и ошибки указывает на ненормальную ситуацию)
||/ Имя                  Версия            Описание
+++-=======================-=======================-==============================================================
ii  accountsservice         0.6.15-2ubuntu9.6       query and manipulate user account information
ii  acpid                   1:2.0.10-1ubuntu3       Advanced Configuration and Power Interface event daemon
ii  adduser                 3.113ubuntu2            add and remove users and groups
ii  apparmor                2.7.102-0ubuntu3.7      User-space parser utility for AppArmor
ii  apport                  2.0.1-0ubuntu17.4       automatically generate crash reports for debugging
ii  apport-symptoms         0.16.1                  symptom scripts for apport
ii  apt                     0.8.16~exp12ubuntu10.12 commandline package manager
ii  apt-transport-https     0.8.16~exp12ubuntu10.12 https download transport for APT
ii  apt-utils               0.8.16~exp12ubuntu10.12 package managment related utility programs
ii  apt-xapian-index        0.44ubuntu5             maintenance and search tools for a Xapian index of Debian pack
ii  aptitude                0.6.6-1ubuntu1.2        terminal-based package manager (terminal interface only)
ii  at                      3.1.13-1ubuntu1         Delayed job execution and batch processing
ii  base-files              6.5ubuntu6.6            Debian base system miscellaneous files
ii  base-passwd             3.5.24                  Debian base system master password and group files
ii  bash                    4.2-2ubuntu2.1          GNU Bourne Again SHell
ii  bash-completion         1:1.3-1ubuntu8.1        programmable completion for the bash shell
ii  bc                      1.06.95-2               The GNU bc arbitrary precision calculator language
ii  bind9-host              1:9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu Version of 'host' bundled with BIND 9.X
ii  bsdmainutils            8.2.3ubuntu1            collection of more utilities from FreeBSD
ii  bsdutils                1:2.20.1-1ubuntu3       Basic utilities from 4.4BSD-Lite
ii  busybox-initramfs       1:1.18.5-1ubuntu4.1     Standalone shell setup for initramfs
ii  busybox-static          1:1.18.5-1ubuntu4.1     Standalone rescue shell with tons of builtin utilities
ii  byobu                   5.17-0ubuntu1           powerful, text based window manager and shell multiplexer
ii  bzip2                   1.0.6-1                 high-quality block-sorting file compressor - utilities
ii  ca-certificates         20111211                Common CA certificates
ii  command-not-found       0.2.46ubuntu6           Suggest installation of packages in interactive bash sessions
ii  command-not-found-data  0.2.46ubuntu6           Set of data files for command-not-found.
ii  console-setup           1.70ubuntu5             console font and keymap setup program
ii  coreutils               8.13-3ubuntu3.2         GNU core utilities
ii  cpio                    2.11-7ubuntu3           GNU cpio -- a program to manage archives of files
ii  cron                    3.0pl1-120ubuntu4       process scheduling daemon
ii  curl                    7.22.0-3ubuntu4.2       Get a file from an HTTP, HTTPS or FTP server
ii  dash                    0.5.7-2ubuntu2          POSIX-compliant shell
ii  dbus                    1.4.18-1ubuntu1.4       simple interprocess messaging system (daemon and utilities)
ii  debconf                 1.5.42ubuntu1           Debian configuration management system
ii  debconf-i18n            1.5.42ubuntu1           full internationalization support for debconf
ii  debianutils             4.2.1ubuntu2            Miscellaneous utilities specific to Debian
ii  diffutils               1:3.2-1ubuntu1          File comparison utilities
ii  dmidecode               2.11-4                  SMBIOS/DMI table decoder
ii  dmsetup                 2:1.02.48-4ubuntu7.3    The Linux Kernel Device Mapper userspace library
ii  dnsutils                1:9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu Clients provided with BIND
ii  dosfstools              3.0.12-1ubuntu1.1       utilities for making and checking MS-DOS FAT filesystems
ii  dpkg                    1.16.1.2ubuntu7.1       Debian package management system
ii  e2fslibs                1.42-1ubuntu2           ext2/ext3/ext4 file system libraries
ii  e2fsprogs               1.42-1ubuntu2           ext2/ext3/ext4 file system utilities
ii  ed                      1.5-3                   classic UNIX line editor
ii  eject                   2.1.5+deb1+cvs20081104- ejects CDs and operates CD-Changers under Linux
ii  file                    5.09-2                  Determines file type using "magic" numbers
ii  findutils               4.4.2-4ubuntu1          utilities for finding files--find, xargs
ii  fonts-ubuntu-font-famil 0.80-0ubuntu2           Ubuntu Font Family Linux console fonts, sans-serif monospace
ii  friendly-recovery       0.2.25                  Make recovery more user-friendly
ii  ftp                     0.17-25                 classical file transfer client
ii  fuse                    2.8.6-2ubuntu2          Filesystem in Userspace
ii  gcc-4.6-base            4.6.3-1ubuntu5          GCC, the GNU Compiler Collection (base package)
ii  geoip-database          20111220-1              IP lookup command line tools that use the GeoIP library (count
ii  gettext-base            0.18.1.1-5ubuntu3       GNU Internationalization utilities for the base system
ii  gir1.2-glib-2.0         1.32.0-1                Introspection data for GLib, GObject, Gio and GModule
ii  gnupg                   1.4.11-3ubuntu2.3       GNU privacy guard - a free PGP replacement
ii  gpgv                    1.4.11-3ubuntu2.3       GNU privacy guard - signature verification tool
ii  grep                    2.10-1                  GNU grep, egrep and fgrep
ii  groff-base              1.21-7                  GNU troff text-formatting system (base system components)
ii  grub-common             1.99-21ubuntu3.10       GRand Unified Bootloader (common files)
ii  grub-gfxpayload-lists   0.6                     GRUB gfxpayload blacklist
ii  grub-pc                 1.99-21ubuntu3.10       GRand Unified Bootloader, version 2 (PC/BIOS version)
ii  grub-pc-bin             1.99-21ubuntu3.10       GRand Unified Bootloader, version 2 (PC/BIOS binaries)
ii  grub2-common            1.99-21ubuntu3.10       GRand Unified Bootloader (common files for version 2)
ii  gzip                    1.4-1ubuntu2            GNU compression utilities
ii  hdparm                  9.37-0ubuntu3.1         tune hard disk parameters for high performance
ii  hostname                3.06ubuntu1             utility to set/show the host name or domain name
ii  ifupdown                0.7~beta2ubuntu8        high level tools to configure network interfaces
ii  info                    4.13a.dfsg.1-8ubuntu2   Standalone GNU Info documentation browser
ii  initramfs-tools         0.99ubuntu13.1          tools for generating an initramfs
ii  initramfs-tools-bin     0.99ubuntu13.1          binaries used by initramfs-tools
ii  initscripts             2.88dsf-13.10ubuntu11.1 scripts for initializing and shutting down the system
ii  insserv                 1.14.0-2.1ubuntu2       Tool to organize boot sequence using LSB init.d script depende
ii  install-info            4.13a.dfsg.1-8ubuntu2   Manage installed documentation in info format
ii  installation-report     2.46ubuntu1             system installation report
ii  iproute                 20111117-1ubuntu2       networking and traffic control tools
ii  iptables                1.4.12-1ubuntu5         administration tools for packet filtering and NAT
ii  iputils-ping            3:20101006-1ubuntu1     Tools to test the reachability of network hosts
ii  iputils-tracepath       3:20101006-1ubuntu1     Tools to trace the network path to a remote host
ii  irqbalance              0.56-1ubuntu4           Daemon to balance interrupts for SMP systems
ii  isc-dhcp-client         4.1.ESV-R4-0ubuntu5.8   ISC DHCP client
ii  isc-dhcp-common         4.1.ESV-R4-0ubuntu5.8   common files used by all the isc-dhcp* packages
ii  iso-codes               3.31-1                  ISO language, territory, currency, script codes and their tran
ii  kbd                     1.15.2-3ubuntu4         Linux console font and keytable utilities
ii  keyboard-configuration  1.70ubuntu5             system-wide keyboard preferences
ii  klibc-utils             1.5.25-1ubuntu2         small utilities built with klibc for early boot
ii  krb5-locales            1.10+dfsg~beta1-2ubuntu Internationalization support for MIT Kerberos
ii  landscape-common        12.05-0ubuntu1.12.04    The Landscape administration system client - Common files
ii  language-pack-en        1:12.04+20130128        translation updates for language English
ii  language-pack-en-base   1:12.04+20130128        translations for language English
ii  language-pack-ru        1:12.04+20130128        translation updates for language Russian
ii  language-pack-ru-base   1:12.04+20130128        translations for language Russian
ii  language-selector-commo 0.79.3                  Language selector for Ubuntu
ii  laptop-detect           0.13.7ubuntu2           attempt to detect a laptop
ii  less                    444-1ubuntu1            pager program similar to more
ii  libaccountsservice0     0.6.15-2ubuntu9.6       query and manipulate user account information - shared librari
ii  libacl1                 2.2.51-5ubuntu1         Access control list shared library
ii  libapt-inst1.4          0.8.16~exp12ubuntu10.12 deb package format runtime library
ii  libapt-pkg4.12          0.8.16~exp12ubuntu10.12 package managment runtime library
ii  libasn1-8-heimdal       1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - ASN.1 library
ii  libattr1                1:2.4.46-5ubuntu1       Extended attribute shared library
ii  libbind9-80             1:9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu BIND9 Shared Library used by BIND
ii  libblkid1               2.20.1-1ubuntu3         block device id library
ii  libboost-iostreams1.46. 1.46.1-7ubuntu3         Boost.Iostreams Library
ii  libbsd0                 0.3.0-2                 utility functions from BSD systems - shared library
ii  libbz2-1.0              1.0.6-1                 high-quality block-sorting file compressor library - runtime
ii  libc-bin                2.15-0ubuntu10.4        Embedded GNU C Library: Binaries
ii  libc6                   2.15-0ubuntu10.4        Embedded GNU C Library: Shared libraries
ii  libcap-ng0              0.6.6-1ubuntu1          An alternate POSIX capabilities library
ii  libclass-accessor-perl  0.34-1                  Perl module that automatically generates accessors
ii  libclass-isa-perl       0.36-3                  report the search path for a class's ISA tree
ii  libcomerr2              1.42-1ubuntu2           common error description library
ii  libcurl3                7.22.0-3ubuntu4.2       Multi-protocol file transfer library (OpenSSL)
ii  libcurl3-gnutls         7.22.0-3ubuntu4.2       Multi-protocol file transfer library (GnuTLS)
ii  libcwidget3             0.5.16-3.1ubuntu1       high-level terminal interface library for C++ (runtime files)
ii  libdb5.1                5.1.25-11build1         Berkeley v5.1 Database Libraries [runtime]
ii  libdbus-1-3             1.4.18-1ubuntu1.4       simple interprocess messaging system (library)
ii  libdbus-glib-1-2        0.98-1ubuntu1.1         simple interprocess messaging system (GLib-based shared librar
ii  libdevmapper1.02.1      2:1.02.48-4ubuntu7.3    The Linux Kernel Device Mapper userspace library
ii  libdns81                1:9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu DNS Shared Library used by BIND
ii  libdrm-intel1           2.4.43-0ubuntu0.0.2     Userspace interface to intel-specific kernel DRM services -- r
ii  libdrm-nouveau1a        2.4.43-0ubuntu0.0.2     Userspace interface to nouveau-specific kernel DRM services --
ii  libdrm-radeon1          2.4.43-0ubuntu0.0.2     Userspace interface to radeon-specific kernel DRM services -- 
ii  libdrm2                 2.4.43-0ubuntu0.0.2     Userspace interface to kernel DRM services -- runtime
ii  libedit2                2.11-20080614-3ubuntu2  BSD editline and history libraries
ii  libelf1                 0.152-1ubuntu3          library to read and write ELF files
ii  libept1.4.12            1.0.6~exp1ubuntu1       High-level library for managing Debian package information
ii  libevent-2.0-5          2.0.16-stable-1         Asynchronous event notification library
ii  libexpat1               2.0.1-7.2ubuntu1.1      XML parsing C library - runtime library
ii  libffi6                 3.0.11~rc1-5            Foreign Function Interface library runtime
ii  libfreetype6            2.4.8-1ubuntu2.1        FreeType 2 font engine, shared library files
ii  libfribidi0             0.19.2-1                Free Implementation of the Unicode BiDi algorithm
ii  libfuse2                2.8.6-2ubuntu2          Filesystem in Userspace (library)
ii  libgc1c2                1:7.1-8ubuntu0.12.04.1  conservative garbage collector for C and C++
ii  libgcc1                 1:4.6.3-1ubuntu5        GCC support library
ii  libgcrypt11             1.5.0-3ubuntu0.2        LGPL Crypto library - runtime library
ii  libgdbm3                1.8.3-10                GNU dbm database routines (runtime version)
ii  libgeoip1               1.4.8+dfsg-2            non-DNS IP-to-country resolver library
ii  libgirepository-1.0-1   1.32.0-1                Library for handling GObject introspection data (runtime libra
ii  libglib2.0-0            2.32.3-0ubuntu1         GLib library of C routines
ii  libgmp10                2:5.0.2+dfsg-2ubuntu1   Multiprecision arithmetic library
ii  libgnutls26             2.12.14-5ubuntu3.4      GNU TLS library - runtime library
ii  libgpg-error0           1.10-2ubuntu1           library for common error values and messages in GnuPG componen
ii  libgpm2                 1.20.4-4                General Purpose Mouse - shared library
ii  libgssapi-krb5-2        1.10+dfsg~beta1-2ubuntu MIT Kerberos runtime libraries - krb5 GSS-API Mechanism
ii  libgssapi3-heimdal      1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - GSSAPI support library
ii  libhcrypto4-heimdal     1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - crypto library
ii  libheimbase1-heimdal    1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - Base library
ii  libheimntlm0-heimdal    1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - NTLM support library
ii  libhx509-5-heimdal      1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - X509 support library
ii  libidn11                1.23-2                  GNU Libidn library, implementation of IETF IDN specifications
ii  libio-string-perl       1.08-2                  Emulate IO::File interface for in-core strings
ii  libisc83                1:9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu ISC Shared Library used by BIND
ii  libisccc80              1:9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu Command Channel Library used by BIND
ii  libisccfg82             1:9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu Config File Handling Library used by BIND
ii  libiw30                 30~pre9-5ubuntu2        Wireless tools - library
ii  libjs-jquery            1.7.1-1ubuntu1          JavaScript library for dynamic web applications
ii  libk5crypto3            1.10+dfsg~beta1-2ubuntu MIT Kerberos runtime libraries - Crypto Library
ii  libkeyutils1            1.5.2-2                 Linux Key Management Utilities (library)
ii  libklibc                1.5.25-1ubuntu2         minimal libc subset for use with initramfs
ii  libkrb5-26-heimdal      1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - libraries
ii  libkrb5-3               1.10+dfsg~beta1-2ubuntu MIT Kerberos runtime libraries
ii  libkrb5support0         1.10+dfsg~beta1-2ubuntu MIT Kerberos runtime libraries - Support library
ii  libldap-2.4-2           2.4.28-1.1ubuntu4.3     OpenLDAP libraries
ii  liblocale-gettext-perl  1.05-7build1            module using libc functions for internationalization in Perl
ii  liblockfile-bin         1.09-3                  support binaries for and cli utilities based on liblockfile
ii  liblockfile1            1.09-3                  NFS-safe locking library
ii  liblwres80              1:9.8.1.dfsg.P1-4ubuntu Lightweight Resolver Library used by BIND
ii  liblzma5                5.1.1alpha+20110809-3   XZ-format compression library
ii  libmagic1               5.09-2                  File type determination library using "magic" numbers
ii  libmount1               2.20.1-1ubuntu3         block device id library
ii  libncurses5             5.9-4                   shared libraries for terminal handling
ii  libncursesw5            5.9-4                   shared libraries for terminal handling (wide character support
ii  libnewt0.52             0.52.11-2ubuntu10       Not Erik's Windowing Toolkit - text mode windowing with slang
ii  libnfnetlink0           1.0.0-1                 Netfilter netlink library
ii  libnih-dbus1            1.0.3-4ubuntu9.1        NIH D-Bus Bindings Library
ii  libnih1                 1.0.3-4ubuntu9.1        NIH Utility Library
ii  libnl-3-200             3.2.3-2ubuntu2          library for dealing with netlink sockets
ii  libnl-genl-3-200        3.2.3-2ubuntu2          library for dealing with netlink sockets - generic netlink
ii  libp11-kit0             0.12-2ubuntu1           Library for loading and coordinating access to PKCS#11 modules
ii  libpam-modules          1.1.3-7ubuntu2          Pluggable Authentication Modules for PAM
ii  libpam-modules-bin      1.1.3-7ubuntu2          Pluggable Authentication Modules for PAM - helper binaries
ii  libpam-runtime          1.1.3-7ubuntu2          Runtime support for the PAM library
ii  libpam0g                1.1.3-7ubuntu2          Pluggable Authentication Modules library
ii  libparse-debianchangelo 1.2.0-1ubuntu1          parse Debian changelogs and output them in other formats
ii  libparted0debian1       2.3-8ubuntu5.1          disk partition manipulator - shared library
ii  libpcap0.8              1.1.1-10                system interface for user-level packet capture
ii  libpci3                 1:3.1.8-2ubuntu5        Linux PCI Utilities (shared library)
ii  libpciaccess0           0.12.902-1ubuntu0.2     Generic PCI access library for X
ii  libpcre3                8.12-4                  Perl 5 Compatible Regular Expression Library - runtime files
ii  libpcsclite1            1.7.4-2ubuntu2          Middleware to access a smart card using PC/SC (library)
ii  libpipeline1            1.2.1-1                 pipeline manipulation library
ii  libplymouth2            0.8.2-2ubuntu31.1       graphical boot animation and logger - shared libraries
ii  libpng12-0              1.2.46-3ubuntu4         PNG library - runtime
ii  libpolkit-gobject-1-0   0.104-1ubuntu1          PolicyKit Authorization API
ii  libpopt0                1.16-3ubuntu1           lib for parsing cmdline parameters
ii  libpython2.7            2.7.3-0ubuntu3.2        Shared Python runtime library (version 2.7)
ii  libreadline6            6.2-8                   GNU readline and history libraries, run-time libraries
ii  libroken18-heimdal      1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - roken support library
ii  librtmp0                2.4~20110711.gitc28f1ba toolkit for RTMP streams (shared library)
ii  libsasl2-2              2.1.25.dfsg1-3ubuntu0.1 Cyrus SASL - authentication abstraction library
ii  libsasl2-modules        2.1.25.dfsg1-3ubuntu0.1 Cyrus SASL - pluggable authentication modules
ii  libselinux1             2.1.0-4.1ubuntu1        SELinux runtime shared libraries
ii  libsigc++-2.0-0c2a      2.2.10-0ubuntu2         type-safe Signal Framework for C++ - runtime
ii  libslang2               2.2.4-3ubuntu1          S-Lang programming library - runtime version
ii  libsqlite3-0            3.7.9-2ubuntu1.1        SQLite 3 shared library
ii  libss2                  1.42-1ubuntu2           command-line interface parsing library
ii  libssl1.0.0             1.0.1-4ubuntu5.10       SSL shared libraries
ii  libstdc++6              4.6.3-1ubuntu5          GNU Standard C++ Library v3
ii  libsub-name-perl        0.05-1build2            module for assigning a new name to referenced sub
ii  libswitch-perl          2.16-2                  switch statement for Perl
ii  libtasn1-3              2.10-1ubuntu1.1         Manage ASN.1 structures (runtime)
ii  libtext-charwidth-perl  0.04-7build1            get display widths of characters on the terminal
ii  libtext-iconv-perl      1.7-5                   converts between character sets in Perl
ii  libtext-wrapi18n-perl   0.06-7                  internationalized substitute of Text::Wrap
ii  libtimedate-perl        1.2000-1                collection of modules to manipulate date/time information
ii  libtinfo5               5.9-4                   shared low-level terminfo library for terminal handling
ii  libudev0                175-0ubuntu9.4          udev library
ii  libusb-0.1-4            2:0.1.12-20             userspace USB programming library
ii  libusb-1.0-0            2:1.0.9~rc3-2ubuntu1    userspace USB programming library
ii  libuuid1                2.20.1-1ubuntu3         Universally Unique ID library
ii  libwind0-heimdal        1.6~git20120311.dfsg.1- Heimdal Kerberos - stringprep implementation
ii  libwrap0                7.6.q-21                Wietse Venema's TCP wrappers library
ii  libx11-6                2:1.4.99.1-0ubuntu2.1   X11 client-side library
ii  libx11-data             2:1.4.99.1-0ubuntu2.1   X11 client-side library
ii  libxapian22             1.2.8-1                 Search engine library
ii  libxau6                 1:1.0.6-4               X11 authorisation library
ii  libxcb1                 1.8.1-1ubuntu0.2        X C Binding
ii  libxdmcp6               1:1.1.0-4               X11 Display Manager Control Protocol library
ii  libxext6                2:1.3.0-3ubuntu0.1      X11 miscellaneous extension library
ii  libxml2                 2.7.8.dfsg-5.1ubuntu4.6 GNOME XML library
ii  libxmuu1                2:1.1.0-3               X11 miscellaneous micro-utility library
ii  linux-firmware          1.79.6                  Firmware for Linux kernel drivers
ii  linux-generic-lts-rarin 3.8.0.29.29             Generic Linux kernel image and headers
ii  linux-headers-3.8.0-29  3.8.0-29.42~precise1    Header files related to Linux kernel version 3.8.0
ii  linux-headers-3.8.0-29- 3.8.0-29.42~precise1    Linux kernel headers for version 3.8.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP
ii  linux-headers-generic-l 3.8.0.29.29             Generic Linux kernel headers
ii  linux-image-3.8.0-29-ge 3.8.0-29.42~precise1    Linux kernel image for version 3.8.0 on 64 bit x86 SMP
ii  linux-image-generic-lts 3.8.0.29.29             Generic Linux kernel image
ii  locales                 2.13+git20120306-3      common files for locale support
ii  lockfile-progs          0.1.16                  Programs for locking and unlocking files and mailboxes
ii  login                   1:4.1.4.2+svn3283-3ubun system login tools
ii  logrotate               3.7.8-6ubuntu5          Log rotation utility
ii  lsb-base                4.0-0ubuntu20.3         Linux Standard Base 4.0 init script functionality
ii  lsb-release             4.0-0ubuntu20.3         Linux Standard Base version reporting utility
ii  lshw                    02.15-2                 information about hardware configuration
ii  lsof                    4.81.dfsg.1-1build1     List open files
ii  ltrace                  0.5.3-2.1ubuntu2        Tracks runtime library calls in dynamically linked programs
ii  makedev                 2.3.1-89ubuntu2         creates device files in /dev
ii  man-db                  2.6.1-2ubuntu1          on-line manual pager
ii  manpages                3.35-0.1ubuntu1         Manual pages about using a GNU/Linux system
ii  mawk                    1.3.3-17                a pattern scanning and text processing language
ii  memtest86+              4.20-1.1ubuntu1         thorough real-mode memory tester
ii  mime-support            3.51-1ubuntu1           MIME files 'mime.types' & 'mailcap', and support programs
ii  mlocate                 0.23.1-1ubuntu2         quickly find files on the filesystem based on their name
ii  module-init-tools       3.16-1ubuntu2           tools for managing Linux kernel modules
ii  mount                   2.20.1-1ubuntu3         Tools for mounting and manipulating filesystems
ii  mountall                2.36.4                  filesystem mounting tool
ii  mtr-tiny                0.80-1ubuntu1           Full screen ncurses traceroute tool
ii  multiarch-support       2.15-0ubuntu10.4        Transitional package to ensure multiarch compatibility
ii  nano                    2.2.6-1                 small, friendly text editor inspired by Pico
ii  ncurses-base            5.9-4                   basic terminal type definitions
ii  ncurses-bin             5.9-4                   terminal-related programs and man pages
ii  net-tools               1.60-24.1ubuntu2        The NET-3 networking toolkit
ii  netbase                 4.47ubuntu1             Basic TCP/IP networking system
ii  netcat-openbsd          1.89-4ubuntu1           TCP/IP swiss army knife
ii  ntfs-3g                 1:2012.1.15AR.1-1ubuntu read/write NTFS driver for FUSE
ii  ntpdate                 1:4.2.6.p3+dfsg-1ubuntu client for setting system time from NTP servers
ii  openssh-client          1:5.9p1-5ubuntu1.1      secure shell (SSH) client, for secure access to remote machine
ii  openssh-server          1:5.9p1-5ubuntu1.1      secure shell (SSH) server, for secure access from remote machi
ii  openssl                 1.0.1-4ubuntu5.10       Secure Socket Layer (SSL) binary and related cryptographic too
ii  os-prober               1.51ubuntu3             utility to detect other OSes on a set of drives
ii  parted                  2.3-8ubuntu5.1          disk partition manipulator
ii  passwd                  1:4.1.4.2+svn3283-3ubun change and administer password and group data
ii  patch                   2.6.1-3                 Apply a diff file to an original
ii  pciutils                1:3.1.8-2ubuntu5        Linux PCI Utilities
ii  perl                    5.14.2-6ubuntu2.3       Larry Wall's Practical Extraction and Report Language
ii  perl-base               5.14.2-6ubuntu2.3       minimal Perl system
ii  perl-modules            5.14.2-6ubuntu2.3       Core Perl modules
ii  plymouth                0.8.2-2ubuntu31.1       graphical boot animation and logger - main package
ii  plymouth-theme-ubuntu-t 0.8.2-2ubuntu31.1       graphical boot animation and logger - ubuntu-logo theme
ii  popularity-contest      1.53ubuntu1             Vote for your favourite packages automatically
ii  powermgmt-base          1.31                    Common utils and configs for power management
ii  ppp                     2.4.5-5ubuntu1          Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) - daemon
ii  pppconfig               2.3.18+nmu3ubuntu1      A text menu based utility for configuring ppp
ii  pppoeconf               1.20ubuntu1             configures PPPoE/ADSL connections
ii  procps                  1:3.2.8-11ubuntu6       /proc file system utilities
ii  psmisc                  22.15-2ubuntu1.1        utilities that use the proc file system
ii  python                  2.7.3-0ubuntu2.2        interactive high-level object-oriented language (default versi
ii  python-apport           2.0.1-0ubuntu17.4       apport crash report handling library
ii  python-apt              0.8.3ubuntu7.1          Python interface to libapt-pkg
ii  python-apt-common       0.8.3ubuntu7.1          Python interface to libapt-pkg (locales)
ii  python-chardet          2.0.1-2build1           universal character encoding detector
ii  python-crypto           2.4.1-1ubuntu0.1        cryptographic algorithms and protocols for Python
ii  python-dbus             1.0.0-1ubuntu1          simple interprocess messaging system (Python interface)
ii  python-dbus-dev         1.0.0-1ubuntu1          main loop integration development files for python-dbus
ii  python-debian           0.1.21ubuntu1           Python modules to work with Debian-related data formats
ii  python-gdbm             2.7.3-1ubuntu1          GNU dbm database support for Python
ii  python-gi               3.2.2-1~precise         Python 2.x bindings for gobject-introspection libraries
ii  python-gnupginterface   0.3.2-9.1ubuntu3        Python interface to GnuPG (GPG)
ii  python-httplib2         0.7.2-1ubuntu2          comprehensive HTTP client library written for Python
ii  python-keyring          0.9.2-0ubuntu0.12.04.2  store and access your passwords safely
ii  python-launchpadlib     1.9.12-1                Launchpad web services client library
ii  python-lazr.restfulclie 0.12.0-1ubuntu1         client for lazr.restful-based web services
ii  python-lazr.uri         1.0.3-1                 library for parsing, manipulating, and generating URIs
ii  python-minimal          2.7.3-0ubuntu2.2        minimal subset of the Python language (default version)
ii  python-newt             0.52.11-2ubuntu10       A NEWT module for Python
ii  python-oauth            1.0.1-3build1           Python library implementing of the OAuth protocol
ii  python-openssl          0.12-1ubuntu2           Python wrapper around the OpenSSL library
ii  python-pam              0.4.2-12.2ubuntu4       A Python interface to the PAM library
ii  python-pkg-resources    0.6.24-1ubuntu1         Package Discovery and Resource Access using pkg_resources
ii  python-problem-report   2.0.1-0ubuntu17.4       Python library to handle problem reports
ii  python-serial           2.5-2.1build1           pyserial - module encapsulating access for the serial port
ii  python-simplejson       2.3.2-1                 simple, fast, extensible JSON encoder/decoder for Python
ii  python-twisted-bin      11.1.0-1ubuntu2         Event-based framework for internet applications
ii  python-twisted-core     11.1.0-1ubuntu2         Event-based framework for internet applications
ii  python-wadllib          1.3.0-2                 Python library for navigating WADL files
ii  python-xapian           1.2.8-1                 Xapian search engine interface for Python
ii  python-zope.interface   3.6.1-1ubuntu3          Interfaces for Python
ii  python2.7               2.7.3-0ubuntu3.2        Interactive high-level object-oriented language (version 2.7)
ii  python2.7-minimal       2.7.3-0ubuntu3.2        Minimal subset of the Python language (version 2.7)
ii  readline-common         6.2-8                   GNU readline and history libraries, common files
ii  resolvconf              1.63ubuntu16            name server information handler
ii  rsync                   3.0.9-1ubuntu1          fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool
ii  rsyslog                 5.8.6-1ubuntu8.4        reliable system and kernel logging daemon
ii  screen                  4.0.3-14ubuntu8         terminal multiplexor with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation
ii  sed                     4.2.1-9                 The GNU sed stream editor
ii  sensible-utils          0.0.6ubuntu2            Utilities for sensible alternative selection
ii  sgml-base               1.26+nmu1ubuntu1        SGML infrastructure and SGML catalog file support
ii  ssh-import-id           2.10-0ubuntu1           securely retrieve an SSH public key and install it locally
ii  strace                  4.5.20-2.3ubuntu1       A system call tracer
ii  sudo                    1.8.3p1-1ubuntu3.4      Provide limited super user privileges to specific users
ii  sysv-rc                 2.88dsf-13.10ubuntu11.1 System-V-like runlevel change mechanism
ii  sysvinit-utils          2.88dsf-13.10ubuntu11.1 System-V-like utilities
ii  tar                     1.26-4ubuntu1           GNU version of the tar archiving utility
ii  tasksel                 2.88ubuntu9             Tool for selecting tasks for installation on Debian systems
ii  tasksel-data            2.88ubuntu9             Official tasks used for installation of Debian systems
ii  tcpd                    7.6.q-21                Wietse Venema's TCP wrapper utilities
ii  tcpdump                 4.2.1-1ubuntu2          command-line network traffic analyzer
ii  telnet                  0.17-36build1           The telnet client
ii  time                    1.7-23.1                The GNU time program for measuring cpu resource usage
ii  tmux                    1.6-1ubuntu1            terminal multiplexer
ii  tzdata                  2012e-0ubuntu0.12.04.1  time zone and daylight-saving time data
ii  ubuntu-keyring          2011.11.21.1            GnuPG keys of the Ubuntu archive
ii  ubuntu-minimal          1.267.1                 Minimal core of Ubuntu
ii  ubuntu-standard         1.267.1                 The Ubuntu standard system
ii  ucf                     3.0025+nmu2ubuntu1      Update Configuration File: preserve user changes to config fil
ii  udev                    175-0ubuntu9.4          rule-based device node and kernel event manager
ii  ufw                     0.31.1-1                program for managing a Netfilter firewall
ii  update-manager-core     1:0.156.14.11           manage release upgrades
ii  update-notifier-common  0.119ubuntu8.6          Files shared between update-notifier and other packages
ii  upstart                 1.5-0ubuntu7.2          event-based init daemon
ii  ureadahead              0.100.0-12              Read required files in advance
ii  usbutils                1:005-1                 Linux USB utilities
ii  util-linux              2.20.1-1ubuntu3         Miscellaneous system utilities
ii  uuid-runtime            2.20.1-1ubuntu3         runtime components for the Universally Unique ID library
ii  vim                     2:7.3.429-2ubuntu2.1    Vi IMproved - enhanced vi editor
ii  vim-common              2:7.3.429-2ubuntu2.1    Vi IMproved - Common files
ii  vim-runtime             2:7.3.429-2ubuntu2.1    Vi IMproved - Runtime files
ii  vim-tiny                2:7.3.429-2ubuntu2.1    Vi IMproved - enhanced vi editor - compact version
ii  w3m                     0.5.3-5ubuntu1          WWW browsable pager with excellent tables/frames support
ii  wget                    1.13.4-2ubuntu1         retrieves files from the web
ii  whiptail                0.52.11-2ubuntu10       Displays user-friendly dialog boxes from shell scripts
ii  whoopsie                0.1.33                  Ubuntu crash database submission daemon
ii  wireless-tools          30~pre9-5ubuntu2        Tools for manipulating Linux Wireless Extensions
ii  wpasupplicant           0.7.3-6ubuntu2.1        client support for WPA and WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i)
ii  xauth                   1:1.0.6-1               X authentication utility
ii  xkb-data                2.5-1ubuntu1.3          X Keyboard Extension (XKB) configuration data
ii  xml-core                0.13                    XML infrastructure and XML catalog file support
ii  xz-lzma                 5.1.1alpha+20110809-3   XZ-format compression utilities - compatibility commands
ii  xz-utils                5.1.1alpha+20110809-3   XZ-format compression utilities
ii  zlib1g                  1:1.2.3.4.dfsg-3ubuntu4 compression library - runtime

Перечислить файлы, принадлежащие пакету:

dpkg -L ftp
/.
/usr
/usr/share
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/ftp
/usr/share/doc/ftp/BUGS
/usr/share/doc/ftp/copyright
/usr/share/doc/ftp/changelog.Debian.gz
/usr/share/doc/ftp/README.Debian
/usr/share/man
/usr/share/man/man5
/usr/share/man/man5/netrc.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man1
/usr/share/man/man1/netkit-ftp.1.gz
/usr/bin
/usr/bin/netkit-ftp
/usr/share/man/man1/pftp.1.gz
/usr/bin/pftp

Найти пакет, которому принадлежит файл:

dpkg -S ifconfig
net-tools: /usr/share/man/pt_BR/man8/ifconfig.8.gz
net-tools: /usr/share/man/fr/man8/ifconfig.8.gz
net-tools: /sbin/ifconfig
net-tools: /usr/share/man/man8/ifconfig.8.gz
linux-headers-3.8.0-29: /usr/src/linux-headers-3.8.0-29/tools/hv/hv_set_ifconfig.sh
net-tools: /usr/share/man/de/man8/ifconfig.8.gz

Установить локально расположенный пакет можно командой dpkg -i:

sudo dpkg -i zip_3.0-4_i386.deb

Замечание: Устанавливать пакеты с помощью dpkg в большинстве случаев не рекомендуется. Лучше воспользоваться менеджером пакетов, который обрабатывает зависимости.